Essential Mineral for Health and Why
Charlie Skeen, C.N.C
The mineral chromium is required by the body for “glucose
tolerance”, or the proper use of blood sugar, called glucose,
for energy. Without chromium and insulin, a hormone produced by
the pancreas, our blood sugar can damage our cells. This is known
as “glucose intolerance”. Diabetics who get damaged
eye retinas and blood vessels do so not because of a lack of insulin
but because of the improper reactions of the blood sugar (glucose)
reacting with the various cells. These harmful reactions can be
caused by any number of factors including a lack of insulin, chromium,
manganese, and even defective cells.
While it’s true
that one’s blood sugar can be controlled by avoiding refined
carbohydrates (sugar and flour products, especially white flour)
and/or insulin injections, total control can only be achieved
when the body receives the proper amount of trivalent chromium,
in a GTF configuration, and other important minerals such as manganese,
magnesium, and zinc.
Researchers have discovered that when we are deficient in chromium
we’re at greater risk for cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol
and triglyceride levels go up with a poor ratio of HDLs (high-density
lipoproteins) to LDLs (low-density lipoproteins). This means instead
of our body carrying the cholesterol from our blood stream to
the liver by use of the HDLs where it is eliminated, our body
carries cholesterol by use of the LDLs from the liver to the cells
throughout the body.
to note that in countries that have high tissue levels of chromium
there is very little atherosclerosis, plaque on the lining of
the arteries, and very low occurrences of heart attacks and strokes.
On the other hand, areas of the world where there are low tissue
levels of chromium cardiovascular disease is greater. It’s
been discovered that people who have died of heart disease have
almost no chromium in their aortas, the main blood vessels to
the heart, while those who do not suffer from heart disease or
plaque deposits in the aortas have healthy levels of aortic chromium.
GTF - Glucose
It’s important to understand that although chromium is essential,
to be effective it must be in the form of GTF, (Glucose Tolerance
Factor). This means that the mineral chromium in its organic form,
which is trivalent chromium (Cr+3), must combine in the body with
nicotinic acid/B3, and a tri-peptide amino acid called glutathione
which is made up of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid. When
the body is healthy and functioning properly and all of the nutrients
just mentioned are available, the body can combine them to create
Studies have revealed
that GTF binds both to the insulin molecule and the insulin receptor
which increases the hormonal effect of insulin up to three fold,
thereby enhancing glucose tolerance. But, as people grow older,
and due to other health complications, they can no longer form
the GTF contributing to diabetes, and/or elevated cholesterol
and triglycerides increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications.
To insure that this
process of making GTF chromium occurs in the body it is essential
to take organic chromium that is a true chelate for maximum absorption
and have the nicotinic acid/B3 combined with it. After the chromium
enters the blood stream it will then combine with glutathione
to produce a GTF chromium.
Of the three amino acids,
glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid, required to produce GTF
chromium, cysteine is the only one that could be in short supply.
Glycine and glutamic acid are very abundant and are almost never
lacking. To insure adequate levels of cysteine are present make
sure that sulfur containing foods such as eggs, especially the
yolks, red peppers, muscle proteins, garlic, onions, cabbage,
broccoli, asparagus, cauliflower, mustard, and horseradish are
consumed regularly. Also, one could supplement with cysteine amino
Proper levels of cysteine
will allow the body’s liver to produce adequate amounts
of the tri-peptide amino acid gluathione so that when the true
chelate organic chromium, preformed with nicotinic acid/B3 is
taken, they will combine and produce GTF chromium for healthy
blood sugar control to prevent diabetes, and/or elevated cholesterol
and triglycerides increasing the risk of cardiovascular complications.
As we can see chromium
and it’s co-factors in forming GTF are far more critical
to our health than just simply a weight loss supplement.
that Trivalent GTF Chromium is Beneficial are;
1. Reduces our craving for sweets by its involvement with the
hormone Serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain.
2. Stabilizes blood sugar thereby reducing the appetite.
3. Assists in the activation of an enzyme that clears fats from
our bloodstream which requires insulin to activate.
4. Plays a key role in many metabolic enzymes and hormones.
5. Improves amino acid utilization.
6. Improves utilization of the amino acids lysine and arginine
into the brain.
7. Assists in protein production and blood transport.
8. Assists in maintaining a healthy heart and longevity as it
is required for the production of heart protein.
9. Necessary for carbohydrate metabolism.
10. Required for proper muscle development and energy production.
11. Growth and wound healing.
12. Reduces our need for insulin.
13. Makes insulin more effective at removing glucose from the
blood improving its burning in the cells for energy, preventing
fat storage of the glucose.
14. Works with the thyroid and is part of maintaining the metabolic
rate for effective calorie burning.
15. Plays an important role in fighting stress and maintaining
the immune system by reducing cortisol levels.
Needs to Be
Chromium is not stored in the body and needs to be replaced daily.
Excretion occurs mainly through the kidneys. Losses of 10-300%
of chromium occur due to increased insulin production from the
intake of too many refined sugars and carbohydrates. Also, our
soil has become depleted contributing to this deficit, while processing
of our food removes 80% of this essential mineral. Other factors
that contribute to further loses are infections, aging, injuries,
surgeries, stress, extreme heat and cold, and trauma.
Exercise of any sort
no matter how mild, increases chromium losses twice the normal
rate. Urinary losses when exercising more vigorously, such as
running six miles, are five times the norm. Carbo-loading and
eating simple carbohydrates in the form of sugars cause losses
3 times the norm.
Research has confirmed
that chromium is indeed essential in maintaining a healthy, disease
free body. Especially in light of the fact that the number one
killer in the United States is heart disease. Also, more people
than ever before are becoming diabetic. This is becoming an epidemic
of huge proportions costing billions of dollars annually, as well
as affecting many lives in a negative way.
Albion's chromium called chromium nicotinate glycinate
chelate is produced by a patented process that combines organic
trivalent chromium (Cr+3) with nicotinic acid/B3, and the amino
acid glycine to produce a safe, organic, non-toxic form of chromium.
Blood study analysis revealed that the total chromium absorbed
from chromium nicotinate glycinate chelate was 57.5%.
While chromium nicotinate glycinate chelate is an organic form
of chromium that has a high absorption rate and biological activity,
it takes more than just high absorption levels for chromium to
be effective, it must also be in a form that the tissues of the
body will use by being preformed with nicotinic acid/B3. This
is especially essential because many people lose the ability to
preform the organic chromium with nicotinic acid/B3 due to disease
Chromium nicotinate glycinate chelate has no negative side effects,
is completely non-toxic and safe. In fact, extensive research
done by Dr. D. N Mowat at the University of Guelph has shown that
chromium nicotinate glycinate chelate to be safe and tremendously
glycinate chelate is a true mineral chelate using the amino acid
glycine as the chelator, or carrier, of the chromium into the
Besides chromium, there are three other important co-factores,
or minerals, that work with chromium nicotinate glycinate chelate
in controlling blood sugar. These three co-factors are:
( as Albion Chelazome® amino acid chelate) - involved in activating
over 300 enzymes, some of which are required to properly use fat,
carbohydrates, and protein in the cells. Activates metabolic processes
that burn sugar (glucose) and fats to produce ATP (adenosinetryphosphate)
in the glycolytic and Kreb’s energy cycles. Slows secretion
of insulin preventing hypoglycemia and diabetes. Involved in RNA
and DNA production for healthy cellular replication of cells in
tissues and organs involved in blood-sugar control.
( as Albion Chelazome® amino acid chelate) - required for
proper use of glucose for energy, normal pancreas function and
development. A deficiency will result in a reduced production
of insulin because of defective cells in the pancreas as well
as a fewer number of islet cells which contain fewer beta cells
that manufacture insulin. In 1964, Dr. L.G. Konsenko found manganese
levels in diabetics to be approximately half of those of non-diabetics.
as Albion Chelazome® amino acid chelate) - a key component
in the function of insulin. Zinc is required for DNA synthesis,
critical to cellular replication of the cells of organs and tissues
involved in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels, energy production,
muscle building, fat utilization and activates over one hundred
enzymes needed in many complex metabolic processes. A deficiency
results in reduced glutathione levels in the blood needed for
GTF formation with organic chromium.
for Superior Absorption
As mentioned earlier, it is important to understand that chromium
nicotinate glycinate chelate and the three minerals being used
from Albion Labs, magnesium, manganese, and zinc, are true mineral
chelates being complexed to the amino acid glycine by a patented
process making them highly absorbable and nutritionally functional
to the body. Minerals that are not true chelates break apart in
the stomach and digestive tract causing intestinal distress and
will have poor absorption into the bloodstream. Albion’s
patented process of creating chelated minerals with glycine will
allow the chelates to remain intact throughout the pH range of
the gastrointestinal tract allowing for efficient absorption of
the minerals. But, once the chelates enter the bloodstream the
minerals are released from the glycine becoming available to the
biological tissues that require them.
Nutritionally Functional Mineral Chelate
Glycine is the simplest (smallest) nonessential amino acid making
it an excellent ligand, or carrier, for maximum transport of minerals
into the bloodstream. Now even though it is called nonessential,
it is very essential to the health of the body in many areas.
Nonessential just simply means that the body can make glycine
from the essential amino acids .The daily intake of glycine in
the United States of the average adult is 3 to 5 grams while the
amount excreted is 0.1 gram. The body can also manufacture glycine
through transamination of glyoxylate and conversion of serine,
another amino acid. Another process the body uses is called degradation
where the complex amino acid threonine is used to produce glycine.
The importance of glycine
is revealed to us when we see the many roles it plays in the complexity
of the human body. Please note some of these roles listed below.
1. Glycine serves as
a neurotransmitter necessary for Central Nervous System function.
2. Glycine helps to
slow the degeneration of muscle tissue as one of the three components
needed to produce creatine.
3. Glycine is needed
for healthy prostate function in males.
4. Glycine is used to
form nonessential amino acids for the immune system.
5. Glycine is used along
with other amino acids in the Krebs Cycle, the energy system of
the body responsible for the production of glycogen in the liver
6. Glycine is needed
for the manufacture of skin proteins, collagen, glutathionine,
and DNA, which as you will recall is critical to cellular replication
of cells throughout our body.
6. Research has confirmed
glycine’s ability to assist in the recovery of the liver
from alcohol-induced liver damage (1), protect
the liver from carcinogens such as hypolipidemic drugs, chemical
solvents, and industrial plasticizers, (2) minimizes
alcohol-induced liver damage by preventing ethanol from reaching
the liver by activating first-pass metabolism in the stomach,
(3) displays significant anti-ulcer and cytoprotective properties
against chemically induced gastric ulcers, (4)
dietary glycine was found to be safe and effective in reducing
kidney toxicity by cyclosporines (5) ( Cyclosporines
are fungi of a group of biologically active metabolites of the
fungi Tolypocladium inflatum Gams. This would include certain
other fungi as well), and a 5% glycine diet prevented death and
reduced liver and lung injury in animals exposed to endotoxin
shock (6) ( Endotoxin shock is a result of toxin
contained in the cell walls of some microorganisms, especially
gram-negative bacteria, being released when the bacterium dies
and is broken down in the body).
As can be seen the amino
acid glycine is not only an excellent agent for chelating minerals
for superior absorption and is safe, but is a useful nutrient
to the body.
Research and science
now knowing more fully the implications of this trace mineral
chromium on disease prevention and maintaining a healthy body,
makes it an important part of a healthy lifestyle.
1. “Glycine accelerates recovery from alcohol-induced
liver”. [ Yin, et al, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 286(2):1014-9
1998 Aug ]
2. “Dietary glycine
prevents increases in hepatocyte proliferation cause by peroxisome
proliferator”. [ WY-14, 643", Rose, et al:Chem Res
Toxicol, 10(10):1198-204 1997 Oct ]
3. “Glycine minimizes
alcohol-induced liver injury by preventing ethanol from reaching
liver by activating first-pass metabolism in the stomach”.
[ Iimuro y, et al, Gastroenterology, vol 110, iss 5, 1996, P1536-42
4. Glycine was shown
to have significant anti ulcer and cytoprotective properties against
chemically induced gastric ulcers. [ Tariq and Al-Moutaery, Res
Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol, 97(2):185-98 1997 Aug ]
5. Dietary Glycine was
found to be a safe and effective treatment to reduce the nephrotoxicity
[ Thurman RG, et al, Transplantation, 63 (11):1661-7 1997 Jun
6. Glycine diet (5%)
was shown to totally prevent mortality and reduce liver and lung
injury in animals exposed to endotoxin shock. [ Ikejim, et al,
Am J Physiol, 271 (1PT1):G97-103 1996 July ]